Frequent urination: causes frequent urination at night or during the day

Frequent urination, but no bladder infection? What are the possible causes of frequent urination or frequent urination in men and women? Do you have to go to the toilet all the time to pee? Urinary problems – such as having to go to the toilet very often and getting up frequently at night to urinate – are common complaints in both men and women. It is not something we easily talk about, which is why the complaints are often left untreated for too long. Most people need to urinate 4 to 8 times a day. If you have to go to the bathroom to urinate more than eight times a day or wake up during the night (several times) to go to the bathroom, it could mean that you are drinking excessively or drinking too much in the hours before you go to the bathroom. goes to bed. However, it can also indicate an underlying health problem. The most common causes of frequent urination or urination are diabetes, pregnancy and prostate problems.

  • Frequent urination (pollakuria)
  • Common causes of frequent urination at night or during the day
  • Frequent urination due to diabetes
  • Frequent urination due to pregnancy
  • Frequent urination in a man due to prostate problems
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Frequent urination due to bladder infection
  • Cystitis in women
  • Cystitis in men
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Frequent urination due to an overactive bladder
  • Frequent urination and drinking due to diabetes insipidus
  • Stroke or other neurological disorders
  • Bladder cancer
  • What is bladder cancer?
  • Symptoms of advanced bladder cancer
  • Frequent urination due to medication
  • Frequent urination due to stress
  • Food and drink
  • Drinking too much
  • Foods
  • Frequent urination due to an STD
  • Frequent urination in a child
  • Frequent urination at night
  • Nocturia
  • Underlying condition
  • Frequent urination during menstruation
  • Retaining moisture
  • Endometriosis
  • Additional symptoms
  • When to seek medical attention?

 

Frequent urination (pollakuria)

Many people suffer from pollakiuria. This means that even with little urine in the bladder there is a great urge to go to the toilet. Pollakiuria indicates an increase in the number of urinations per day without increasing the amount of urine produced daily. The latter is known as ‘polyuria’, where you urinate large amounts. Most people usually urinate four to eight times a day. If you have to urinate more than eight times a day with a normal fluid intake (1500-2000 ml) or if you wake up more than once or twice at night to go to the toilet, then this is called frequent urination. Although the bladder can often hold up to 600 ml of urine, the urge to urinate usually occurs at 350-500 ml. If you already have a feeling of urgency at 150-200 ml and regularly give in to this by urinating often, your bladder will not have the opportunity to develop into a normal bladder capacity. Frequent urination can be annoying and some people drink less as a result, but this is counterproductive. Drinking too little leads to concentrated urine, which irritates the bladder and can even promote a bladder infection.

Common causes of frequent urination at night or during the day

Common causes for frequent urination (pollakuria) include:

  • Urinary tract infections: Typical symptoms of a urinary tract infection are pain when urinating, complaints of urgency and frequent urination of small amounts.
  • Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can cause symptoms such as excessive thirst, frequent urination, etc.
  • Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and pressure on the bladder can cause you to urinate more often.
  • Prostate problems: Frequent urination in men is usually due to an enlarged prostate, especially if the man is over 50 years old.
  • Overactive bladder: You suddenly have to urinate. You also go to the toilet very often because you feel like you have to pee.
  • Diuretics: Using diuretics can lead to increased urine production and increased urination.
  • Neurological disorders: Damage to the nervous system affects bladder control, causing you to urinate more often.

 

Weight loss / Source: Istock.com/VladimirFLoyd

Frequent urination due to diabetes

Frequent urination, feeling very thirsty, fatigue and weight loss are the characteristic symptoms for all types of diabetes. With untreated diabetes, the glucose level in the blood remains too high and as a result the kidneys will try to excrete the excess sugar in the urine as much as possible. This is accompanied by frequent urination (polyuria). This causes you to lose a lot of fluid and makes you extremely thirsty from urinating so much. You lose weight because the body cells cannot absorb enough glucose as fuel, despite the high glucose level in the blood. Because the cells are no longer nourished with glucose, the body looks for an alternative energy source and begins to break down muscle tissue and fat for energy.

Frequent urination due to pregnancy

During pregnancy you have to urinate more often. From the first weeks of pregnancy, the growing uterus puts increasing pressure on the bladder, causing you to urinate frequently. As long as the pregnant woman has no lower abdominal pain and is urinating normal amounts, it is just part of life.

Frequent urination in a man due to prostate problems

The prostate starts to grow as you get older and that can cause annoying urinary problems at some point. An enlarged prostate can compress the urethra (the tube through which urine is removed from the body) and thus block the flow of urine. If the complaints become more serious, a number of treatments are available.

Urinary tract / Source: La Gorda/Shutterstock.com

Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection is more common in women than in men. Frequent urination can be a symptom of several problems, but if frequent urination is accompanied by fever, a burning sensation during or just after urination, and pain or discomfort in the abdomen, you may have a urinary tract infection. The urinary tract consists of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra. A urinary tract infection refers to an infection or inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the urinary tract.

Frequent urination due to bladder infection

A bladder infection is a common cause of frequent urination, especially in girls and women. The main culprits are bacteria, usually E. coli. These bacteria live in your intestine and usually do not pose a problem. Everyone has them. But if they enter the urethra, they can enter the bladder and cause an infection.

Cystitis in women

Bladder infections are more common in women than men for several reasons. The female urethra is shorter than a man’s, and it is close to the vagina and anus, where bacteria live. Having intercourse, wiping your bottom from back to front after having a bowel movement, and inserting a tampon are all ways that bacteria can enter your body.
During pregnancy, the baby can press on your bladder, preventing you from completely emptying the bladder and making bacteria more likely to multiply. After menopause, women have lower levels of the hormone estrogen. This causes the lining of the urethra or urethra to thin and can change the balance of bacteria in the vagina, making bladder infections more common.

Cystitis in men

When men get a bladder infection, a prostate infection is usually the cause. But any blockage, such as a bladder stone or enlarged prostate, that prevents the bladder from completely emptying can cause inflammation.

Interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome is a fairly rare and painful form of chronic bladder infection (cystitis), which mainly manifests itself in women and the cause of which is unclear. It affects women more often than men. In this condition, the wall of the bladder becomes irritated. This therefore stretches less easily, as a result of which the capacity of the urinary bladder decreases. This means you will have that painful ‘full bladder feeling’ more quickly. Typical complaints are an urge to urinate, frequent urination and pain in the lower abdomen.

Frequent urination due to an overactive bladder

An overactive bladder is common. Just as many men as women suffer from it. With an overactive bladder, the urinary bladder regularly gives a signal that it is full, while this is not the case. You cannot exert any influence on this signal. Several complaints can indicate an overactive bladder, the most important being an abnormal urge to urinate. This can be accompanied by involuntary urine loss, because you have difficulty holding in your urine. Possible other complaints include frequent urination – that is, more than eight times a day – or having to go to the toilet more than once at night to urinate. All these complaints are caused by excessive activity of the bladder.

Frequent urination and drinking due to diabetes insipidus

With diabetes insipidus you not only have to urinate very often, but also a lot, which makes you very thirsty and you have to drink a lot. A disturbance of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes the disease. This hormone ensures that your body retains enough water. Diabetes insipidus is caused by the lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. This causes your body to release too much water through the urine.

Stroke or other neurological disorders

Damage to nerves that control bladder and/or bowel functions can lead to problems with bladder function, including frequent and sudden urges to urinate. It may happen that, shortly after a stroke, you cannot hold your urine or stool properly (incontinence) or you cannot urinate properly. These symptoms often disappear on their own within a few weeks. However, a stroke or other neurological conditions can also cause damage to nerves that supply the bladder, which can lead to permanent problems with bladder function, including frequent urination.
Besides stroke, other examples of neurological conditions that can lead to frequent urination (pollakuria) include:

  • Multiple sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the protective layer around nerve fibers, which can disrupt signal transmission to and from the bladder.
  • Parkinson’s disease: A progressive condition that can lead to problems with your bladder (control).
  • A spinal cord injury: This can disrupt nerve signals to the bladder. Depending on the level of the spinal cord injury, the bladder will respond differently than you are used to.
  • Spina bifida or ‘spina bifida’: A congenital defect resulting from a developmental disorder of the spinal cord and vertebral column. It can lead to problems with the bladder, among other things.
  • Syringomyelia: A rare neurological condition that affects the spinal cord. It can lead to bladder problems, among other things.

 

Stages of Bladder Cancer / Source: Lightspring/Shutterstock.com

Bladder cancer

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer occurs because cells in the bladder do not divide uncontrollably and form a malignant tumor. A tumor that takes up space in the bladder or bleeds can lead to frequent urination. In most cases, blood in the urine (hematuria) is the first symptom of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can sometimes cause voiding symptoms, such as:

  • Urinating more often than usual;
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination;
  • Feeling that you need to urinate immediately, even if the bladder is not full;
  • Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream.

These symptoms also correspond well with a urinary tract infection, bladder stones, an overactive bladder or an enlarged prostate (in men). However, it is important that you consult a doctor with such complaints so that the cause can be found and treated.

Symptoms of advanced bladder cancer

And tumor in the bladder that has grown large or spread to other parts of the body can sometimes cause other symptoms, such as:

  • Not being able to urinate;
  • Back pain on one side;
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss;
  • Feeling tired or weak;
  • Swelling in the feet;
  • Bone pain.

 

Frequent urination due to medication / Source: Stevepb, Pixabay

Frequent urination due to medication

Medication use can lead to frequent urination. A diuretic (or water tablet) is a drug that promotes the excretion of water by the kidneys. This results in increased urine production. These medications are used to treat high blood pressure, for example.

Frequent urination due to stress

Anxiety, nervousness and stress can lead to frequent urination. Muscle tension is one of the most likely causes of frequent urination. When you are anxious, your muscles tense. This tension puts pressure on your bladder, making you feel like you need to urinate more than you otherwise would.

Frequent urination due to drinking too much / Source: Mimagephotography/Shutterstock.com

Food and drink

Drinking too much

If you drink more than your body needs, you also have to go to the toilet more often. What you lose in fluid every day must be replenished. You can best maintain your fluid balance by drinking enough, but food also contains fluid. The body automatically maintains the fluid balance by excreting less urine if you lose too much fluid, and you then feel thirsty. And if you drink too much, you will have to urinate more often.

Foods

Alcohol and caffeine can act as diuretics. These substances have a diuretic effect, causing you to urinate more frequently. Carbonated drinks, artificial sweeteners and citrus fruits can irritate the bladder, causing you to need to go to the toilet more often.

Frequent urination due to an STD

A sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, can cause urinary symptoms such as pain and a burning sensation when urinating, but it normally does not make you have to urinate more often.

Frequent urination in a child

Frequent urination is a relatively common symptom in young children. Often there is no underlying medical condition. A child’s bladder is small and does not hold as much urine as an adult’s bladder. For this reason, it is normal for a child to urinate more often and does not necessarily indicate a problem. Your child may urinate more because he or she drinks extra, feels nervous or simply because of habit. Frequent urination can also mean that your child has a urinary tract infection. Symptoms vary depending on a child’s age. If you suspect a urinary tract infection in a child, you should contact your doctor immediately.

Frequent urination at night

Nocturia

A frequent need to get up at night and go to the bathroom to urinate is called ‘nocturia’. This is a common cause of sleep deprivation, especially in older adults. Most people without nocturia can sleep 6 to 8 hours without urinating. Some researchers believe that one urination per night is within normal limits; Urinating two or more times per night can lead to daytime fatigue. People with severe nocturia may get up as many as five or six times in the night to go to the bathroom.

Underlying condition

Nocturia is often a symptom of underlying medical conditions, including a urinary tract infection, a tumor in the bladder or prostate, bladder prolapse, or conditions that affect the two sphincters that close the bladder outlet. In women, nighttime urination can be caused by weakened pelvic floor muscles, which is often accompanied by bladder prolapse and/or uterine prolapse. Nighttime urination is also common in people with heart failure, liver failure, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, or diabetes insipidus. Pregnancy and diuretic pills are also associated with nocturia.

Frequent urination during menstruation

Retaining moisture

Just before menstruation occurs, a woman usually retains fluid. During or after menstruation, this extra fluid will leave the body. This may cause a woman to temporarily need to urinate a little more often, this is normal and usually goes away quickly.

Abdominal pain due to endometriosis / Source: Andrey Popov/Shutterstock.com

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic condition in women in which the mucous membrane tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus also occurs outside the uterus, for example in the abdominal cavity, on or in the ovaries, between the uterus and the bladder or the rectum, in the intestinal wall or in the bladder, etc. Women with endometriosis may have complaints during menstruation such as abdominal pain, but also more frequent urination if the mucous membrane tissue has entered the bladder and cause a feeling that the bladder is full. It can make you feel like you have to pee all the time, almost like a bladder infection.

Additional symptoms

Although there are many possible causes for frequent urination, the symptoms are generally the same. Depending on the cause, frequent urination may be accompanied by other complaints, such as:

  • Incomplete bladder emptying: residual.
  • Difficulty getting the beam started: start dysuria.
  • The urine stream is interrupted: saccadic stream.
  • Idle urge: having the urge to urinate even though the bladder is not full.
  • Urinary incontinence, also called involuntary leakage, is a urological condition in which bladder control is lost.
  • Dysuria: Pain or burning sensation during or immediately after urination. This could be a sign of a urinary tract infection.
  • Hematuria: Blood in the urine in small amounts, blood clots or large amounts. This usually causes the urine to become darker in color.
  • Nocturia: nighttime urination.
  • Pollakiuria (pollakuria): increase in the number of urine voids per day without increasing the amount of urine produced daily.
  • The dripping takes longer than normal: dribbling.

 

When to seek medical attention?

Seek medical attention if frequent urination is accompanied by any of the following symptoms:

  • Fever;
  • Stomach ache;
  • Pain in the back or pain in the side;
  • Bloody, dark or cloudy urine;
  • Vomit;
  • Chills;
  • Increased appetite or excessive thirst;
  • Fatigue;
  • Discharge in women or men.

If frequent urination, incontinence, nighttime urination or otherwise affects your life in a negative way, consult your doctor.

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